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Trappist-1 Solar System Discovered
niL nitsuJ :yB
   Imagine starting over. Like, all over, as in moving to a whole new planet that is 39 light years away. This could be a possibility one day. Many explain deeply about what the Trappist-1 system is. This solar system is very interesting due to the fact that it has the possibility of maintaining life.
        The Trappist-1 solar system consists of seven, earth-sized exoplanets orbiting a dwarf star. NASA believes that the planets contain water and maybe even life. They planets are very compact, too. The farthest orbiting planet is closer to its parenting star than Mercury is to the sun. They are so close together that you could possibly see all the other six planets if you were to stand on one of them. Astronomers are currently trying to find out more on the atmospheres of the planets and if they are up to the standards of supporting life. If these exoplanets could support life, it could mean that we are able remove problems such as overpopulation.
  Exoplanets are planets that are out of our own solar system. The first exoplanet was discovered in 1995, but we have found a lot more since then. There are currently around 3,450 known exoplanets. There are multiple ways exoplanets can be found. This is could include Wobble Watching, Shadow Searching, and other methods. Other methods could be used, but they are ineffective and don’t work as well as wobble watching or shadow searching. Wobble watching is when astronomers look for changes in the color spectrum. Stars can have color changes when there are one or more gravitational pulls coming from planets. Shadow searching is when an observer can see shadow from being in between a planet and a star. This is how Trappist-1 was found.
        Living in the Trappist-1 solar system would be interesting. Considering the size of the parenting star of the Trappist-1, the planets would be very dimly lit. It would look the same as if the sun was already set on earth. The years would be very short, too. They would only be about 1.5 - 12.4 earth days. There is a bad side however. Some may argue that since the planets are tidally locked, the star wouldn’t be able to provide enough heat to the other side of the planets. Tidally locked means that only one side of each planet is pointed towards the star. However, models show that the star is able to give enough heat for the planets to dissipate heat around the surface of each planet.
     In conclusion, the Trappist-1 solar system is a hope for a potential new home. I believe that it would be really interesting to live on and witness. Maybe in the future we can be able to find a way to travel there. It might even have some life, too. Would you like to witness a whole new planet instead of earth?

BEES

By: Emma, Jimei & Makayla

     BUZZZZZZ! It’s bees! They are buzzing everywhere from the ground to the sky. Some of them are even inside flowers! Even though bees might seem dangerous, but they are actually super significant in our lives. Without them there’s no us. 
     Bees are flying insects ,closely related to wasps and ants, known for pollination and for producing honey and beeswax.  Their scientific name is Anthophila. There are 20,000 species of bees in 7 to 9 recognized families. They are found on every continent except for Antarctica, and can be 0.08 inches to 1.54 inches long.
     Bees pollinate about ⅙ of the world’s flowers approximately 400 different agricultural types of plants. From roses to tulips all these flowers would be nonexistent without bees. Meaning that if bees die so do our wonderful flowers.
     Bees are a slowly dying species and as their population declines so does the stock of some of our favorite foods. Bees make pollen which is vital for plants, such as coffee beans, apples, and even non plant foods! Farmers who use powerful pesticides to kill off harmful insects are also accidentally killing off bees.     
      Bees are important to our society for many reasons, from honey to pollen bees are important. This slowly dying species pollinates most of the world's flowers. So without bees there is no coffee, honey, or flowers. So save the bees!

Laws

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     So to summarize, there are 3 big steps to create laws. After all the bills are created and approved by the House, the President has to either sign it, veto it, or do nothing. If the President vetoes it, Congress can veto that by a ⅔ vote. After this the bill will become a law.

By: Jimei & Makayla

    Have you ever wonder about how laws are created? There are many intriguing steps to accomplish this task. First, the House of Representatives introduces the bill. Then each bill goes through three steps called reading.
     First, the House of Representatives introduces the bill. Then each bill goes through three steps called reading. The first reading occurs when a number is assigned to a bill and enters the Congressional Record. The second reading happens when the bill leaves the committee and back to the House and Senate for debate. The third reading is when the bill is put into the final vote. 
     After the first reading bills are sent from the House to the Speaker of the House which is the leader of the group. In the Senate the bill will be sent from the senators to the President pro tempore, the leader of the Senate. If the chairperson decides the bill is not important he or she may “pigeonhole” and the bill will not be considered any further.
     The second reading consist of debate and vote in the House, then debate and vote in the Senate. The debate in the House has a few strict rules due to the number of people. With fewer people debates in the Senate have looser rules and they are permitted to speak freely. Last the bill enters the conference committee during the second reading. In the committee members of both the Houses and the Senate can confer. If the bill is approved by both the Senate and the House in the same way, then it enters the final vote, or the President. 
     The President has three choices after receiving the bill, sign it, veto it, or do nothing. When the President signs the bill it automatically becomes a bill. When the President veto the bill, it can be overturned by ⅔ of the Congress approval. When the President do nothing to the bill it is up to the Congress. If the Congress is in session for 10 days (not counting Sunday) after the submitting the bill, it will automatically become a law. If the Congress didn’t stay in session for 10 days after submitting the bill, it will enter the President’s pocket, and get veto.  
​​Introduction- 
21 year old Kristopher Boesen lost body movement when his car hit a tree and then slammed into a telephone pole. When his parents were told that he could never regain his body movement again. But they later found out that the Keck Medical Center of USC, was doing a clinical trial, where they form stem cells and stick them into the cervical spinal cord.
Who Did It? -
The Medical team leader was Charles Liu (USC Neurorestoration Center). They collaborated with Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center and Keck Medicine of USC.
What Happened? -
The Medical team injected 10 million AST-OPC1 cells directly into the cervical spinal cord in April. After that, they had to wait and see if there were any signs of improvement. After two weeks of waiting, they finally got what they wanted. Improvement. Three months after the clinical trial, he was able to feed himself, use his cellphone, write his name, operate a motorized wheelchair, and even hug his family and friends. “As of 90 days post-treatment, Kris has gained significant improvement in his motor function, up to two spinal cord levels,” Liu said.
Conclusion -
Kris had to go through many things to get the surgery done. Not only was it a clinical trial, which means it could not have even worked, but they had to work on a tight schedule. There was only one right time to do the surgery, so there was only a window of opportunity. If they did it too soon or too late it could have caused MAJOR problems with Kris. Hopefully this clinical trial opens many more doors for future ones.
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Paralyzed Man Does Treatment and Regains Upper Body Movement
Abby, Jacob, Carolina, and Hailey




While scientist were searching the black sea sea floor through pitch black water they came across something important to history. They came across more than 40 shipwrecked ships that could be traced back to more than a millennial years ago. Since there is little oxygen they have realized that the old wood is still in almost perfect condition. Since it was in good condition they found out that the ships are traced back to the 13th of 14th century.​​ 
In the fall a team of explorers had a robot sent underwater to light up the water and took thousands of pictures. While examining the ships the scientist figure out that the ships had to have sunken when the black sea expanded. However, the black sea was first known as the black lake and when the temperature rose water melted into the lake. Freshwater and salt water flowed into the lake which cause two different layers one with an oxygenated upper level with less salt and a lower saltwater level without oxygen. With the help of no oxygen in that level causing preservation of the ships the scientist have found ships below 150 meters and some lay as deep as 2,200 meters below the surface.
Scientist have admitted that they have seen nothing close to the well preserved ships. The ships is so intact that you could see scratches and marks on the ship and hopefully they could figure out things during that time period.What we know today is that the black sea was used to transport grains, for, horses, oil, cloth, wine, and people. Also people used the black sea to cut through to the northern branch of the silk road. The scientist working on this are in bulgarian territory and the whole black sea makes borders Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Romania, and Georgia. The people in bulgarian are hoping that the countries come together and search the black seas but no one has come forward about the project. The good thing about it is that the ships aren’t going anywhere and the water will preserve it.
One scientist states that there has to be ten of thousands of ships out in the black sea. The black sea had many people traveling on it to transport goods and it was famous for that very reason. It’s only reasonable for it to hold thousands of sunken ships.So right know the rest of the black sea remains a mystery intill the other country come together to go on a massive search of the black sea. The black sea takes up to 436,400sq kl, So it’s is going to take a while but it is worth it.


Mosquitoes 

By: Jimei & Makayla 


      Not all mosquitoes bite, only females do. They do not feed on blood but they do need it to reproduce. Their saliva carries viruses, bacteria, and parasites. So when they bite into our body, it can cause severe and even life-threatening illnesses. Sometimes mosquitoes can carry diseases from one victim to another. For example, when a mosquito bites into an individual with yellow fever, the mosquito now is carrying the disease. So the next time the mosquito bites this disease will be within the body of the victim which will kill him.  
     To stop these diseases from spreading we have created a new technology. We created a male mosquito that will mate with wild female mosquitoes, in which their offsprings will die off. This is the product of Oxitec. Even though we have this product is it still undecidable whether we should use it or not. If we would use it we can cause a drastic change in the ecosystem. Without mosquitoes frogs would die off, and organisms that eats frog will also die, so this is becoming a continuing cycle of death.
     To wrap it all up, you now understand the scientific reason for why we have bump after a mosquito bite. Even though mosquitoes are dreadful, but without them our ecosystem won’t survive. We’d have to accept the way they are. In the future we might to able to change the genes of mosquitoes so they won’t need be blood to reproduce.

  Ouch! Have you ever got bitten by a mosquito? It itches doesn’t it? It also creates little bumps that makes your skin unsmooth. There are reasons why this happens. Don’t just look down at the mosquitoes. Their bites can actually cause a deadly effect on your body.
     When mosquitoes bite they inject a anticoagulant (which prevents your blood from clotting) triggering a mild allergic reaction. This allergic reaction is what causes the bump. Their saliva contains proteins that most people are allergic to, causing the swelling or itchiness after the bite. Our body has a natural immune response to the foreign mosquito saliva and creates histamines, thereby causing the skin around the bite to itch. Without the anticoagulant they cannot drink our blood, it will be too dense for them to insert into their tubes. Mosquitoes pick their victim based on the scent of carbon dioxide and   other chemicals in your perspiration. 


​Different Ways An Account Can Be Cracked

     Have you wonder what actually happens when a person is “hacking” into someone’s account. There are multiple ways to do this and many sources explain into detail how it works. The main ways of cracking accounts is by brute forcing, phishing, and keylogging.
    Brute forcing is done by attempting to guess through all the possibilities to crack the password. Certain softwares can aide with this process, but it still will probably take a long time depending on the length of the password. This can take from minutes to up to even decades. The people that do this can be hired by certain companies. These companies use them to test the security of their network.
    Phishing can be a little more complicated depending on the way it is done. It can be done by vishing, smishing, or just plain phishing. Phishing is done by setting up a website that looks identical to that of one the victim uses. The victim is tricked into keying his or her username and password for the fake website which allows the attacker access to the victim’s account. Smishing or SMS phishing is through mobile phones. The attacker sends a malicious link to the victim that tells them their phone bill rates will go up if they don’t do something. If the victim proceeds to click on the link it would direct them to a website that prompts the victim to download a software infected with Trojan Horse. Vishing or voice phishing is a little complicated because the attacker would have to interact with the victim through phone call. The phone call would have the attacker telling the victim to give him the verification code on the victim’s email to confirm no one is breaking into the victim’s account. Which is not true.
    Keylogging is when a malicious software in installed onto a victim’s computer which allows the attacker to record every keystroke that is made. This can be of use to the attacker when the victim is keying in his or her password for the account the attacker wants access to. A keylogging software is usually after a certain goal. It is trying to get between when the key is pressed and when the letters display on the monitor. The software then records it and holds it for later usage.
    In conclusion, hacking is a little different from what the most may think. We think hacking is an interesting topic and should be monitored carefully. Maybe in the future people will understand what links are bad and what are good. Oh, and please don’t use this article as a type of inspiration to do something illegal. This is for educational purposes ONLY.


What is Google Scholar?
​Some chink named Chelsea Vega
You may have heard of "GOOGLE", but have you ever heard of "GOOGLE SCHOLAR"?! I guess not, that is most likely the reason you're reading this, or you were forced. Google scholar is just how it sounds, scholarly. A bit of a complex Google. 

  Let me explain in a more detailed way. Google Scholar is a simple way to search for scholarly literature, as I read from their website. Like I said complex version of Google. With Google Scholar you can search for different kinds of sources like court opinions, abstracts, professional societies, and universities. There are more, too much to list. It really helps if you need more complex research. ​​
  Why exactly was Google Scholar created? Google Scholar has been around for quite a long time, 12 years to be exact, the project was launched November 20, 2004. The idea of Google Scholar came to be through a discussion between Alex Verstak and Anurag Acharya. They wanted to allow an easy way to get scientific knowledge. Their goal was to “make the world’s problem solvers 10% more efficient”.
  My experience with Google Scholar was basically bad, I’m in the 7th grade so I wouldn’t need it now. It can be confusing, the layout is different from regular Google, but it isn’t bad. You can find court cases, which is sorta interesting. It has more features than Google, like finding court cases from past years, there is also some kind of metrics feature. I think you can filter some of the things you search. Honestly, my review was pretty trash, I feel that you should go and visit it yourself it's a good website.







In conclusion, Google scholar is a pretty useful source. Created for efficient minds. I am not really one of those people, so it’s not really me. But I can see it helping out people in college with assignments, or people interested with law, the court case feature. Google scholar is the complex more efficient version of Google. I recommend that you, the reader, should use it.


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Ray Kurzweil : 2045 Initiative
  


 
   Have you ever thought about the idea of transporting you conscience directly into the internet? Well, this could possibly become reality in the year 2045. Many sources show just how possible it could be to actually transport your conscience into the internet. Ray Kurzweil is responsible for this extravagant prediction. Not only has he made this prediction, but he has also predicted many other amazing predictions, too.
     Ray Kurzweil is a futurist born February 12, 1948 in Queens, New York. His predictions are hard to believe but usually around 86% of them are true. He also has quite a bit of occupations, too. He wrote books that about how in the near future, change could be bigger than the average may expect, he invented Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and he invented the text to speech synthesizer for the blind. As a young child he was  far ahead from his peers. At around eight years old he made a electronic puppet theater. He would finish the whole series of  Tom Swift Jr. by the age of 10. And finally, phenomenally wrote a detailed paper on neocortex by the age of 14! This shows just how advanced he was for his age.


 
​     Kurzweil is most famous for his job as a futurist. His predictions may seem impossible, but it is just scary to think just how accurate he is. One of his predictions are that by 2020, most sickness would be gone. This is due to us getting better at nanotechnology and making nanobots. Nanotechnology is dealing with dimensions under 100 nanometers. Nanobots will become smarter than modern medicine. Another prediction is that non-biological intelligence will become a billion times more smarter than biological intelligence. This means that artificial intelligence will become a billion times more smarter than us humans. Around the same time, we will also be able to create food basically out of thin air. We would have to use nanotech foglets.
     Many of these prediction may seem like nothing could go farther than this, but Kurzweil states that by 2045 our conscience would be able to be uploaded into the internet. Since our brains are inside the internet, we would multiply our intelligence by a billion. We would also become immortal since we don’t have any tissue. However, Ray Kurzweil may be the one that predicted this, but he isn’t the one that is assembling this idea. A Russian man named Dmitry Itskov is the founder of the group 2045 Initiative. This group is the one that plans to put this into action. They hope to transmit your brain neuron by neuron.
     So in conclusion, Ray Kurzweil has predicted many things and has many phenomenal ideas. Hopefully in the they will actually be able to create a way for our minds to be able to be transported into the internet. Would you want your mind inside the internet.
   


Justin Lin
 
Cure
There is no cure as of this time to cure Alzheimer’s disease. The only time that people can actually be diagnosed with the disease, is by an autopsy. An autopsy is an examination of someone’s body who has died. But in today’s world, with all the technology we have, there could be something that could help. It isn’t a cure, but it is something that could lead into one. What happens with this research, is someone has an MRI, and they watch the brain, starting at what they think, could be Alzheimer's. They don’t even know where the disease starts, or how it even starts. 


What Happens?


When Alzheimer's starts in your brain, it attacks the healthy Neurons. It clogs  them up, until they pretty much die. Plaques and Neurofibrillary Tangles are the hallmark of the disease, or how they know the person has Alzheimer’s, but they of course, only find that out after an autopsy. The disease is slow, but is still the 6 most leading cause of death in North America. It can not be stopped, slowed, nor treated. At least that’s what everyone thought.
Maybe a Cure?
Like I said before, today’s technology is something that is opening doors to other disease cures. Bob Linton was diagnosed with the Alzheimer's disease in 2004. He was later offered a spot in a highly experimental trial that involved digging deep into his brain. What happens is they drill holes in your skull. He was one of the first six people in the world to undergo the operation. His memory center is being electrically stimulated by two tiny electrodes embedded in his head. That is then powered by a small battery pack located in the right side of his chest, near the shoulder. (They call it a pacemaker for the brain). Though it is not considered a cure, they think of it as a treatment.
Conclusion
 Right now there may be no cure for Alzheimer’s, but you never know what tomorrow brings! Family genes do play a factor in the disease, as you are more likely to get it if it runs in your family. They do not know if the disease is just a bad gene, or even just the brain shutting down of old age, but one thing we all know, is that hopefully one day we will be able to cure this disease!  


Alzheimer's - What is this Disease?
Abby, Patty, Carolina


Alzheimer’s is a very difficult disease. It attacks the brain, and no one knows what causes the disease, or how it works. ⅛ of people over the age of 65 will get the alzheimer's disease, or if the gene runs in your family, it is about 2 out of 8 of people who get it. 


Uncover The Waste

The world ice is melting and their are many things under the ice. One of them is a nuclear powered place controlled by the U.S military. It is slowly melting and showing the radioactive building to Greenland.The building can expose sewage, waste waters,and diesel fuels. The climate change can uncover the radioactive waste that was left behind as early as 2090. Camp Century was built in 1959, at the height of the Cold War, beneath the surface of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet. There, the US studied deployment of nuclear missiles against Russia. The base is 800 miles from the north pole, the base was built in large trenches buried underneath snow to protect the base. In the base they were involved in scientific labs, nuclear plants, a library, chapel, and a barbershop. They named the cover operation designated for military use, “Project Iceworm”.
The military figured out a way to secretly store nuclear weapons from the Germans. In the base it covers 52,000 square miles of greenland ice of just tunnels. In the tunnels if an attack ever occurred missiles would travel through the tunnels and across the island. However, greenland continuously shifting ice sheet eventually forced the army to abandon the base in 1966.  The base was forgotten and then recovered for it’s true purpose.
While the amount of PCBs and radioactive While the amount of PCBs and radioactive waste that camp century will release is small compared to what already exists in the arctic, however the political ramifications of that pollution could be huge.

Drug Treatment Makes Hiv Vanish!

More About Hiv

This treatment is called antiretroviral therapy . So far , it has been working pretty well , and the progress is remarkable . The experimental therapy works in two ways . The first way it works is , because obviously the immune system doesn’t ignore HIV , and because of that it helps the virus reproduce . And the second way it works is , the drug Vorinostat helps to activate a certain cells so that way , they can be spotted by the immune system .













In order for all of this to even work , the scientists created this type of drug that used vaccines that help the body recognize the HIV- infected cells . These doctors have come a long way , and have made so many improvements . The experiment has been tested on rats and tests have shown that cells that have viruses in them have gone away.This experiment works by sending another virus to destroy the worse virus cells.

Introduction


A 44 year old man that had HIV , who wished to remain anonymous , was treated with certain medicines and apparently it was all of a sudden gone . After he received this exciting news , he got tested again from different doctors to see if the results were correct . Every doctor that he went to said the same thing , which was the fact that he no longer has it . A team of scientists from the Uk ( includes five people) said that they may be a lot more closer than they thought for finding a cure that can help everyone that needs it .

How Does It Work?

Boy with Diabetes Saves Money For 4 Years

Do you think you could save pennies for over FOUR years? Well, Aiden Heath ​​
did! He got just enough for a service dog, Angel . This 8 year old boy, that lives in Waitsfield, Vermont, got the help to achieve this goal with the help of his news story coverage.
    Izzy shared their thoughts with me on this topic. She told me that, “The little boy was very determined to achieve his goals and it is very sweet.” A majority of people would completely agree on that opinion. Many people who don’t have a service dog have no clue that it’s pretty pricey. I get that since service dogs are very useful for the people who need it. Izzy would most likely be able to save up as much as he did for that same length of time if it was something she is really determined for. If she did end up saving that much, Izzy would give a portion to charity, portion for her family, and the rest is for college. Quite a lot of people would probably make that same choice.
    Fox News and Eyewitness News had around the same perspective. Both stated that Aiden Heath, an eight year old boy saved change for more than four years just to get a service dog. Unfortunately, Aiden is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes so the service dog was necessary. Aiden achieved the $15,000 goal with help from his News coverage. According to the website gofundme.com, Aiden’s parents barely sleep since they have to make sure his blood sugar doesn’t drop too low. Apparently, the service dog is able to tell if the blood sugar is going to drop 20-30 minutes before so there is enough time. The dog is an addition to the family for Aiden to be even safer.
    Aiden Heath is going to be best friends with angel.After an exciting encounter at the airport, Aiden took Angel to her new home. The new friends are now working with a trainer to get to know each other. Angel is adjusting to her new role, and Aiden is learning how to give Angel commands.Aiden's mom states that “We have been so amazed by the outpouring of support. He is feeling the love…There are no words.”

Astronomers Find Star Older Than Sun

Even More

Since this star is older than the sun,that means that it has been around for years. This star although being super old has just been found by many Astronomers so it is pretty surprising that it even exists. There are also many elements in this star that are really heavy and big since the star is so huge.

​Introduction

49 Lib is a new star that is said to be twelve billion years old.This is actually older than our sun and is the only star that we have found that is older than our sun.It was thought to be way younger but it is actually one of the oldest stars out there.When stars become too old they turn so big that the gravity they have is not enough to hold its mass together. When this happens they expulse all of their materials and if there is another star close by both elements will combine. This is how 49 Lib gained all of its heavy elements. When it first started 49 Lib was close to the same size of the sun but overtime it grew really big.It has gained many elements and is now a really big size. 



More About It

When stars become too old they turn so big that the gravity they have is not enough to hold its mass together. When this happens they expulse all of their materials and if there is another star close by both elements will combine. This is how 49 Lib gained all of its heavy elements. When it first started 49 Lib was close to the same size of the sun but overtime it grew really big.It has gained many elements and is now a really big size.